In this fourth episode, Juan Carlos Areán is joined by Reverend Dr. Anne Marie Hunter, the executive director and founder of Safe Havens Interfaith Partnership Against Domestic Violence and Other Abuse; Dr. David Adams, co-founder and co-director of Emerge Counseling and Education to Stop Domestic Violence; and Dr. Oliver Williams, senior consultant for the African American Domestic Peace Project. They discuss the importance of engaging and partnering with faith leaders in the community response against domestic violence, highlighting several faith leaders who have used their platform to engage with people who use violence as well as a new toolkit on the topic, Between Compassion and Accountability, Guidelines for Faith Leaders Responding to People Who Abuse Intimate Partners. They also speak about how abusive partner intervention facilitators can more effectively engage participants of faith in their programs as well as the importance being culturally responsive as it relates to participants’ faith.
The following is a transcript of the podcast:
JUAN CARLOS AREÁN: Greetings. My name is Juan Carlos Areán. I’m a program director in the Children and Youth Program at Futures Without Violence. We are partnering with the Center for Court Innovation on the Abusive Partner Accountability and Engagement Project, an initiative funded by the Office on Violence Against Women. We provide training and technical assistance to communities across the country to help them enhance their abusive partner intervention and engagement strategies. We are producing a podcast series focusing on innovation and trend in abusive partner intervention programming, also known as battery intervention programming.
Today I have the pleasure to be joined by Reverend Dr. Anne Marie Hunter, the executive director and founder of Safe Havens Interfaith Partnership Against Domestic Violence and Other Abuse; Dr. David Adams, co-founder and co-director of Emerge Counseling and Education to Stop Domestic Violence; and Dr. Oliver Williams, senior consultant for the African American Domestic Peace Project, among other things. They’ll be talking with us today about working with abusive partners in the context of faith communities. Thank you all so much for joining us today. Before we start on today’s topic, could you all share a brief overview of your respective organizations and the programming you offer? Let's start with Anne Marie.
REV. DR. ANNE MARIE HUNTER: Hi, everybody. This is Anne Marie Hunter. I wanted to say just a few words about Safe Havens. We are all about building bridges between faith communities, and faith leaders, pretty much everyone who’s faith-affiliated in any way with community-based services that supports survivors, but also that support or help intervene in the case of someone who is abusing their partner. We do that through training, resource development, technical assistance. We work both locally here in the Boston area as well as nationally. We are very intentionally multi-religious because we believe that one thing that all faith-based people have in common is the need to figure out from a faith-based perspective how to respond to domestic violence in a way that is supportive of victims and survivors, but also provides compassion and accountability to those who abuse their partners.
AREÁN: Great. What about Emerge, David?
DR. DAVID ADAMS: Emerge is an abuser education program. We started in 1977. We provide group interventions for people who abuse intimate partners. Our groups are in English and Spanish. We also have separate groups for gay, lesbian, and bisexual people. We accompany the direct services with a pretty wide variety of community education events to educate the public about domestic violence, and also to provide training for first responders to generally improve institutional responses to domestic violence.
AREÁN: Thank you, David. What about you, Oliver? I know you have so many projects going on. It's hard to keep up, but tell us what you are doing right now.
DR. OLIVER WILLIAMS: I’m a little less active than I used to be. I used to direct the Institute on Domestic Violence in the African American community. I started an organization called the African American Domestic Peace Project. It’s in 10 cities. I used to direct that, but now I’m a senior advisor. We have younger people taking that on within their communities, they work with their social service organizations that are focused on domestic violence. Many of them are church-based and are doing work specifically around domestic violence, but using faith as an intervention strategy to try to respond, to both victims and men and women who use violence, and also trying to be a resource for the community. Law enforcement is seen as a resource, and not an intrusion, within those communities.
AREÁN: Wonderful. Thank you so much. Going back to Anne Marie, why is it important for faith leaders and faith communities to, number one, be aware of domestic violence in their congregations, and number two, learn how to work in particular with abusive partners?
REV. DR. HUNTER: I guess the first thing I would say is that there are a lot of victims and survivors out there. That may come as a surprise to many faith leaders, but there are many of us who are victims and survivors. Also, many people are faith-affiliated in the United States, especially in marginalized communities where faith is often really vibrant and central to community and family life. As a result, faith communities are one of the first places that people turn for help. That could be that a survivor turns for help to a faith leader, or it could be someone sitting next to them in the choir that they trust. We’re kind of arguing that anyone in a faith community could be a first responder and that, as a result, all of us need to know how to respond because that first response is critical in whether they reach services and safety or not. We really want that first response to be excellent and supportive.
In addition, faith communities and faith leaders are involved in life cycle events like baptisms, or namings, or birth ceremonies, or marriages, of course, even funerals. We know people in our congregations well often, and we know them across generations. We know people well enough to know when behavior changes radically or without any reason. We also educate young people, which gives us a huge opportunity to be doing preventive education. At our best, we also speak with moral and prophetic authority and could speak about this in a way that would have a huge impact on the community. I know my preaching professor said, “You have to preach about what is keeping people up at night.” I would say that this is a pretty good topic for what is keeping people up at night. We need to know how to respond.
It’s also true that some research is suggesting that faith leaders can be effective in encouraging people who abuse to access services, like a batterer’s education program, and to stick with it. Faith leaders can be there to be supportive, and to bring hope, and to encourage folks, and remind them that change is possible if someone is willing to put in the work, and hard self-reflection and analysis, and really knuckle under and do the work, that that change is possible.
In addition, I think one last reason that comes to mind would be that many of the victims that I’ve worked through over the years have said that they don’t want the relationship to end. They just want the abuse to stop. I think many faith leaders are in that same boat, that they would like to see abuse stop. I mean, it’s a justice issue. Its’ a matter of peace, and stopping oppression in our families and communities. It’s important. If we can be an ally with survivors and if we can support those who abuse as they change their abusive behavior, we can try to keep as many relationships as possible together, which is what many survivors say they would like to have happen. I know that there are some people who are not going to change, and I’m pretty realistic about that. I think we can give it every chance by trying to support those who abuse as they work to change that behavior.
AREÁN: Thank you so much, Anne Marie. Oliver or David, do you want to add anything to this?
DR. OLIVER WILLIAMS: One of the things that I wanted to suggest is that if you go to will2change.org, you'll see things directed at both victims of abuse but also perpetrators. We have a Christian minister who talks about what the Bible has to say about domestic violence and encouraging men to really reflect on their behavior associated with domestic violence and how they behave. Also, we have an imam who talks about what the Quran has to say and gives guidance on the different ways to be able to deal with conflict without abuse.
AREÁN: That’s great, Oliver. Do you have any stories of how faith leaders have been able to engage folks who use violence?
DR. OLIVER WILLIAMS: Yes, in Cleveland, Mississippi, Bishop Roderick Mitchell – he’s got 34 churches that he works with. He reaches out to lay people who want to take this on as a mission, as a ministry within the church. He gives them guidance in terms of what the Scripture has to say, but he also teaches them how to listen to victims and also people who are perpetrators of domestic violence. He also gets referrals from the county to his program and also from the community for battered women. He’s got an inspiring story because he grew up in a home where there was domestic violence and what he felt like he needed to do to prepare himself to do that work.
Another thing is that Minister La Donna Combs talked about the experiences with women in shelter programs. What she did was she reached out so that she could give prayer herself. Then women would continue to come by and asked her for prayer to the point that after a period of time, the women in the shelter wanted to have a prayer service where she would pray for them, and they will pray for each other, and read Scripture that was healing for them. Those are some examples, Juan Carlos.
AREÁN: Thanks so much, Oliver. David, a question for you. Emerge recently partnered with Safe Havens to produce a booklet called Between Compassion and Accountability, Guidelines for Faith Leaders Responding to People Who Abuse Intimate Partners. I love the name, by the way. Can you tell me a little bit about how the collaboration came about and what’s in the guidelines?
DR. ADAMS: Well, we have worked with Safe Havens for over 25 years. We, I think, initially got to know each other because Emerge was one of the few resources that worked with those who abused their intimate partners. Safe Havens was developing a very comprehensive training protocol for faith leaders. I was one of their trainers for many years, and training not just faith leaders, but members of the congregation. I played kind of a leadership role in engaging men. For many years, our focus was primarily, though, on victims. Over time, Safe Havens has become more interested in developing guidelines for working with abusers. We, together, came up with the idea of developing guidelines for clergy in working with abusers.
In terms of what’s in the guidelines, I mean, there’s a lot of foundational information about domestic violence, what it is, and so forth. Really, what’s specific to working with abusers is we have a section about kind of what are some of the common myths about abusers. For instance, they can be very likable and even charismatic. In a way, they can kind of avoid detection within their congregations, so clergy might not think, “Well, he’s not capable of being an abuser because he’s so well-liked and loved, really, even by other people." I think another kind of myth that we point out is that remorse in and of itself – in Christian traditions, that would be called confession – that doesn’t in and of itself signify a change or a willingness to change, even. So, that I think a lot of times, clergy end up being overly impressed by abusers crying and expressing pain.
I think that we just kind of have to be careful to still hold them accountable for their abusive behavior. You can have an abuser who is both a victim in other aspects of life, but also a victimizer. I think it's important for clergy to understand, what are kind of the steps of accountability? What are sort of meaningful steps towards accountability? Another section of the guidebook talks about that. Within intimate partner abuser education programs, there's kind of a structure for accountability and is kind of really four steps.
One of them is recognizing violent or abusive behavior. A second step is recognizing your responsibility for it. A third step, and this is really a big step, is understanding and recognizing the impact of your abusive behavior, not just on your partner, but on your children. Then the fourth step is making amends. Now that doesn’t mean that you’re making, necessarily, amends to the victim because there may be situations where the victim wishes to have no contact with you – there’s a restraining order, and we think it's really important for that to be respected. In the larger sense, it’s making amends to the community, recognizing how your abusive behavior has impacted the community at large and harmed the community as a whole, and so making changes for your community, but also for your children, in order to make yourself a more positive example for your children.
AREÁN: Wonderful. Thank you, David. Anne Marie, David talked about some of the challenges that clergy would find in working with abusive partners. What are other challenges in working, in general, in domestic violence, but in particular, with folks who use violence?
REV. DR. HUNTER: I think the first thing that people of faith need to come to terms with is that, at least speaking for the Abrahamic faith, we are rather patriarchal. As a result, both in terms of our traditions and in terms of our Scriptures, we are often approaching things from a male point of view. That’s just a result of this culture and society from which these faiths arose, but it means that we need to correct for that. Because many abusers are men, not all of them, but many are, it means that as, traditionally, faith communities have taken the part of the person who abuses, who remains very likable, very charming, usually, very articulate, and has usually managed to convince folks in the congregation and the faith leader that they are not the person who’s at fault in the situation.
Sometimes you had faith leaders, for example, appearing in court as character witnesses for people who abuse We think that people who do bad things are to be obviously bad somehow and easily recognizable, but that’s just not the case. That’s been a real challenge.
I would also suggest that many faith leaders, most, have not had any prior training on domestic violence. I don't think this is a lot different from the general public. As a result, we just really don’t know all the ins and outs around domestic violence. At the same time, we are usually getting from the survivor a minimized, at least initially, minimized report about what’s happening, which is very typical because it’s very hard to talk about this. It’s important to think about the fact that the language around abuse is very ugly. Most people don’t use that kind of ugly language when they’re talking to their faith leader or when they’re talking in sacred space. We, faith leaders, are hearing a pretty sanitized and minimized version of what’s happening. Lacking any education, usually, in domestic violence, we think that this is just a small problem that can be easily dealt with. We then fall prey to quick fixes, to what David referred to earlier, the tearful confession.
In addition to all of that, tried and true responses that we have been taught, in fact, are not effective in the arena of domestic violence, necessarily. We miss the accountability part and err on the side of a compassion. When we hear about domestic violence, we often jump in with marital counseling or couples counseling, which can be very, very dangerous and is not recommended. I hope anyone listening to this who is a faith leader will not do that. That’s what I was taught in seminary, was marital counseling and couples counseling. The tool that we have in our toolkit is not helpful. That’s hard because it’s pretty much the only tool we think we have. I think it starts with being able to understand the situation from the point of view of survivor. Also, appreciating the enormity of the situation, the dangerousness of it, and how much work it will take to change.
DR. ADAMS: I just wanted to add that one of the sections of our guidelines includes discussion about some of the top excuses that abusers use. In fact, we talk about the eight most common excuses that abusers use because we think that clergy sometimes are vulnerable to accepting those excuses. We provide some real concrete guidelines about, what are ways of responding to those excuses that really work towards taking responsibility? For instance, one of the excuses is that I lost control. I think that can be very kind of understood by clergy sometimes as a moral lapse or just simply kind of having a problem controlling one’s emotions. What we like to point out is that in most cases, abusers are able to maintain control in other areas of their lives and are able to manage their feelings just fine. They sort of choose not to do that in the context of their intimate relationship.
Another type of excuse is alcohol or drugs. I think clergy sometimes are prone to thinking that, "Well, that’s a problem that comes out because of your drinking or your drug use." There’s really two separate problems there. Just encouraging the person to gain sobriety doesn’t necessarily mean that their domestic violence problem is going to go away. In fact, the research about that is pretty clear, that those in recovery from substance abuse continue to abuse for the most part, even beyond their recovery.
REV. DR. HUNTER: Another challenge for faith leaders, and I think for all of us who are people of faith, is realizing that in the hands of someone who’s an abuser, anything can be a weapon. Abusers weaponize cars, money, houses, children, jobs, your immigration status, your sexuality, your sexual orientation, your gender expression. Unfortunately, that includes faith leaders and faith community. Sometimes the abuser goes to the faith leader with a very sad story about how their partner has abandoned the marriage or abandoned the relationship. The faith leader, of course, is extremely compassionate and tries to support the abuser, not knowing that they’re the abuser, and really works to try to convince the survivor to return to the relationship.
Or the faith leader is taken in by the tearful confession, and then turns to the survivor, and tries to encourage them to return to the relationship, not knowing how much work it will take to actually change the behavior, but thinking that that change has already happened. That’s a way of weaponizing the faith leader, but the faith community can also be weaponized. I’ve known cases where the entire congregation is sort of working to further the agenda of the person who’s abusing, not realizing that they’re doing that. They’re thinking that they’re just keeping a wonderful marriage together, but what they’re actually doing is convincing someone who is abused to return to an abusive relationship.
AREÁN: Thank you for that. Oliver?
DR. WILLIAMS: Well, I think a few things. I think, also, in faith communities, among the things that I’ve heard from people who have been victims of abuse is the fact that people don’t know how to listen. That’s ministers as well as lay people to the stories of the people who have been harmed or are doing the harm. I think that’s another reason why I think there needs to be education within churches about the dynamic or faith communities, regardless of faith, about what happens in those circumstances. When people are trying to tell you their story, but you have no context of being able to understand it, then women don’t feel listened to, and they don’t feel believed.
AREÁN: Thank you so much, Oliver. I’d like to talk a little bit about the other side of things. David, one of the recommendations of the guidelines is that faith communities refer abusive partners to education programs. In my experience, many programs do not know how to work well with abusive partners of faith. Do you have any recommendations to programs and facilitators so that they can be more effective in this work?
DR. ADAMS: Well, I mean, I guess I think of two things, Juan Carlos. I think of our relationship with faith centers. I think that some programs have very little relationship and really haven’t made themselves known to the faith community. That is a real shame because I think that many of our clients are people of faith and particularly, men of color, Black men as well as Latino men. Their faith community is really one of their main resources and the first thing that they will turn to. If we are intent on serving all of our community, including Black men and Latino men, then I think it really behooves us to really make ourselves known to the faith community as a resource not only as someone that they can refer to, but also as somebody that they can get advice from in terms of domestic violence and education about domestic violence.
I guess the other thing that comes to mind is our own orientation. I have always seen domestic violence as a violation of the spirit. I don’t really think of that in a religious sense per se, but in a larger spiritual sense. I think it is really important, as a way of framing the problem, to see the spiritual dimensions of domestic violence.
AREÁN: Yes, that’s very interesting. I feel like that’s one area that there’s a lot of opportunity for development. You folks provide such a good example of that. Oliver, back to you. You have spent a lot of your career advocating for culturally relevant approaches to addressing domestic violence. This work is no exception. What have you learned about culture, working in African American faith communities in particular?
DR. WILLIAMS: Well, one thing that I have learned is the fact that you have to look at the diversity of people that we would call either Black or African American, that someone who is from Africa, from among the 53 different countries in Africa, from the Caribbean, from South America, from the United States. There really needs to be some discussion about that and identify how they identify themselves, and that some people really make a connection to how they grew up. Someone who grew up in Africa, for example, in some part of Africa, identifying what faith tradition they follow is important. How do they pay attention? I grew up as a Baptist. Then I realized that there were people who were Muslim, Church of God in Christ, Southern Baptists, Episcopal, an Episcopal faith traditions, or AME, African Methodist and Episcopal faith traditions, and that when we’re providing services, like social services, that’s something that we have to consider because there are things that we may do or lack understanding about that may influence how outcomes for people.
The other thing, you may reduce what you define as being helpful if you don’t understand the background of the population that you're working within. In terms of working with faith realities and understanding things about church, how people see church as a support and as a resource, and where people are likely to go to for a primary prevention or a primary support, and may go there first before they go anywhere else. That’s one reason why faith traditions are important, is because it’s a resource within the community, but it can only be a resource if that faith community, or faith church, or mosques, for example, understand not only the problem, but also, solutions and interpret things in ways that people understand.
If you are doing something with a group of men that are Christian and you start to go and challenge Ephesians 5:22 without understanding the meaning of the chapter, then that could be a problem. Or if you don't understand what happens in Islamic communities and understanding the five different stages that the Quran offers and Muhammad offers with regard to dealing with conflicts without the use of violence, then sometimes, you miss things, and then people may be less engaged because they don’t think that you understand their reality.
I think the other thing with African Americans is the fact that sometimes, they may feel as though programs are talking at them rather than with them. Issues that they may be struggling with or issues that I think are examples of displacement, where someone’s angry at one experience and then they take it home and use violence on their family. Yes, you may have had this experience in the community on the job or with the police, but you can’t take that back home and displace it on your family member. That’s not healthy. I think the same thing for battered women and also, women in programs. How do they define help? What do they define as a resource? Is it a family member? Is it a church?
One of the things that Anne Marie said that I thought was really true is with victims. Victims call the police, but they don’t call the police for somebody to be killed. I think, really, they want somebody to get him off of her, but then they also want an environment that understands her experience. Same thing is true for people that are dealing with international situations. If you dealt with a woman who was from Africa, for example, and they’re in a shelter program, does that shelter program understand her story? Do they understand the brand of sexism that men in a particular country may use against her? In speaking in Kenya and speaking in South Africa, one thing that has been interesting to me is how much responsibility they may feel for the victimization they suffered. We need to sort of understand those stories as well as women in the United States or women that live in low-income communities, in middle and upper-income communities. Those are stories that we need to understand too.
AREÁN: Thank you, Oliver. My last question is a big one. Presently, there is a lot of discussion about how to make domestic violence more autonomous from the criminal justice system. What role can faith communities play in this shift, if at all? Let's start with Anne Marie.
REV. DR. HUNTER: That’s a big question, as you’ve said, and a tough one. I think it’s really important from the get-go to recognize that the law enforcement system, criminal justice system, may not be an option for many of the victims and survivors that we work with. Oliver, you’ve just mentioned that there may be racism involved. There may also be immigration issues involved. There may be a survivor who comes from another country where you just wouldn't call the police, and on, and on, and on. There are so many reasons. I’ve also worked with victims and survivors whose abuser is a member of a sheriff’s department, or a police department, or law enforcement in some way. That’s also really, really frightening. Those victims tend to feel most sort of lacking in options because turning to law enforcement is not an option.
I think we just need to recognize the breadth of the need and figure out ways to provide support that maybe is not so criminal justice grounded. One way to do that, obviously, would be working through faith communities and really emphasizing the services that are available through batterer’s intervention programs, or domestic violence service providers, or even child witness to violence programs, that those programs are viable and wonderful in the community. Faith communities, I think, can be a bridge to those services, kind of an access point. Faith communities can be a really great way to get information out to a community about available services. We always encourage the congregations that we work with to put out brochures and information about domestic violence and about local services. One pastor called me and said, "Somebody’s stealing these because they’re disappearing so quickly." We began to think about all the people who were in and out of his building because he had a daycare center. He had scouts meeting there. He had an exercise group. He had a sewing group, Al-Anon, et cetera, et cetera. He realized that it’s very possible that number of people coming in and out of his building, that people were picking up those resources. That’s how they were getting out into the community and that that was really important.
The other thing is that when you pick up resources from a faith community setting, there’s usually a higher level of trust. It’s not like seeing, "Call the hotline number, 1-800," something or other, on the side of a bus. It’s more that this community, this faith community, this faith leader trusts these services enough to put the brochures out in the building. I think that then people approach the services with a higher level of trust.
I think education in the next generation is really important so that we begin to intervene earlier, preferably before trauma is deeply ingrained in anyone in the community or in the family. I also think that faith communities looking long term at how we change this situation without necessarily relying entirely on law enforcement and criminal justice is to say that faith communities can change social norms. We can speak about this prophetically and scripturally. We can talk about gender roles. We can talk about what is expected in a marriage or in a relationship. We can talk about equity and shared power, not only to folks who are about to get married or who are already in relationships who are already adults, but also, to young people who are just learning about healthy relationships and where resources are available, and how to hold boundaries, and get help when they need it.
AREÁN: Thank you so much. That’s very helpful, actually. David, anything to add about this or anything else?
DR. ADAMS: I think we can motivate them by saying it’s against the law, but I would prefer to motivate them by helping them to understand that what they’re doing is a violation against the community and faith in general. I think we’ve seen the limitations of the criminal justice system. I don’t think we can arrest our way out of this problem. We can’t incarcerate our way out of this problem. I would add that men of color are very overrepresented in the criminal justice system. I think we’ve sort of seen how that has really hurt all of us. I think we need a broader conception of the problem. We need broader solutions. We need community-wide solutions to this problem, like Anne Marie said. I think that we need the whole community to take ownership of this problem and not just rely on the criminal justice system.
AREÁN: Thank you, David. Oliver, last word?
DR. WILLIAMS: David and I are old enough that we remember law enforcement being a system that needed to be educated about domestic violence and that their first step wasn’t to arrest people and send them to domestic violence programs and through the court. One of the good things is the fact that they got educated. They reframed how they looked at the work, but the consequence was the fact that when people started to reach out to the community about the issue of domestic violence and batterer’s intervention programs, you didn’t have a lot of African American men coming into the system and coming into the program. You did have some, but you didn’t have the number that you had after it became pro-arrest. Then the numbers of people of color started to increase.
I think the other thing is that you had different legal approaches for middle class and upper middle class men that could afford attorneys to negotiate that for them. White men were able to maybe beat the case or reassess what happened in their circumstances. Then you’d see places where you had larger numbers of men of color from different communities that would come in. I think sometimes the community has different reactions. Some victims of abuse, again, will definitely call the police to get him off of her, but they have feelings about what’s going to happen once the police is going to get there, or the community, because they haven’t been educated as much, blames the victim for the police coming. If he gets killed, then that makes it worse. How can you help the community see law enforcement as a resource and not an intrusion? There are ways that we need to reimagine policing in that case to be able to be responsive, hold the man accountable for his behavior, but seen as a resource and not an intrusion.
The other thing is what Anne Marie talked about. Primary prevention is when you educate the entire community about the problem of intimate partner violence and how we may approach it. Secondary prevention is when you look at folks that are at high risk for having the problem in the community, and you start to pitch toward them about resources in terms of trying to ameliorate the problem. A tertiary prevention is when you have people that come to your particular program because they have the problem.
I think those are ways that we need to think about it, not only educating the community, but also informing them and having resources for them. I’ve seen the faith communities that I’ve worked with, the ones that do domestic violence work, really do all three of those things. Some are directed towards men and women. Some are focused primarily on victims of abuse. Some will focus even on children. This is what I’ve heard different faith leaders make a comment, or they’ll ask the question, "What’s troubling you in your home?" Then they give them the answer. The answer is often domestic violence among them. What they do is they develop a ministry. They’ll focus on it. What they say is, "If you’re going to ask the question, you got to listen to the end." You've got to be able to focus your intention in terms of trying to respond to it.
AREÁN: Well, thank you so much. Clearly, this conversation could go on. It's so rich and interesting. Unfortunately, we need to wrap it up right now. Thank you so much for our guests: Reverend Dr. Anne Marie Hunter, Dr. David Adams, and Dr. Oliver Williams.
Over the course of our podcast series, we'll be touching on several topics, including trauma-informed work, working in Native American communities, other culturally relevant programming, and survivor-centered interventions. To find the rest of our podcast series, you can visit our national clearinghouse on abusive partner intervention programming at courtinnovation.org/abusive-partner-resources. To learn more about our project or to request technical assistance, feel free to contact us at email@example.com.
You can also learn more about all the organizations that presented today: interfaithpartners.org for Safe Havens, all in one word, interfaithpartners; emergedv, again, all in one word, emergedv.com, and aadpp.org for the African American Domestic Peace Project, and will2change. That's will, the number 2, and change, all in one word, dot org, for more information on Dr. Williams’s work. You can also visit us at futureswithoutviolence.org and courtinnovation.org. Thank you so much for listening. So long.